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«• How do vehicles know where they are going? • Will vehicles operate safely in my facility? • Will vehicles be able to move the loads? • How ...»

On-Line Training Program

Module 4a

How do the vehicles work in

an AGV system?

AGVS Product Section

of

MHI

© 2012 MHI®. All rights reserved.

How do the vehicles work in an AGV system?

• How do vehicles know where they are going?

• Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

• Will vehicles be able to move the loads?

• How are the vehicles powered?

• How maneuverable are the vehicles?

• What type of controls are on the vehicle?

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Typical navigation systems for AGVs

• Laser triangulation

• Inertial

• Magnetic tape

• Magnetic grid

• Natural feature

• Wire

• Optical On certain applications more than one form of navigation may be used by a vehicle 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Laser triangulation navigation systems

• Most popular method of AGV navigation

• Reflective targets are mounted throughout the facility at known positions

• A laser scanner is mounted on top of the vehicle

• The laser scanner strobes for reflective targets

• The vehicle control algorithms calculate the exact vehicle position via triangulation 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Inertial navigation systems

• Reference points (often magnets) are embedded in the floor at certain x,y coordinates in a map of the system

• Reference points are detected by a sensor on the vehicle as it passes over the reference point

• A gyroscope on the vehicle measures/maintains vehicle’s heading

• A wheel encoder on the vehicle calculates the distance traveled

• Vehicle uses feedback from all three devices to determine location 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Magnetic tape navigation systems

• Magnetic tape is adhered on the surface of the floor

• A sensor on underside of vehicle detects the magnetic tape

• Can operate off tape path via dead reckoning

• Similar to wire guidance (described on future slide) 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Grid Navigation Systems

• Reference points (often magnets) are embedded in the floor in a grid pattern in the operating area

• Reference points are given x,y coordinates which are stored in the vehicle’s memory

• The reference points are detected by an onboard sensing device

• A gyroscope on the vehicle measures/maintains heading

• A wheel encoder on the vehicle calculates the distance traveled

• Vehicle uses all three devices to determine location 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Natural feature navigation systems

• Reference images of the operating area are recorded and stored in the vehicle’s memory

• Uniquely identifiable, naturally occurring features are identified in the operating area

• Vehicle’s actual position is calculated based on its relative position compared to those natural features

• A camera or laser can be used to record features during setup and sense features during navigation 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How do the vehicles know where they are going?

Wire navigation systems

• Navigates using a continuous wire embedded in the floor

• Antennas located on the vehicle detect signal from the wire

• Uses encoders on wheels to calculate distance

• Typically used in retrofits, system replacements and expansions

–  –  –

• Chemical or tape strip is fixed or painted to the floor

• Vehicle has an onboard sensor which allows it to detect the path

• Some systems use an ultraviolet (UV) light source under vehicle to illuminate the strip which may not be visible with non-UV lighting

• Not typically used in plants or warehouses because floor line needs to be cleaned or reapplied 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

Laser obstacle detection

• Safety rated laser sensor on the vehicle detects objects in the vehicle path, bringing the vehicle to a safe stop before contacting the obstacle

• Typically uses 2 fields at all times – one larger warning/slowdown field and one stop field

• Multiple field pairs can be defined with each having different sizes and shapes for maximum protection – large fields when vehicle is moving faster, small fields when vehicle is moving slower, asymmetrical fields when the vehicle is turning





• The applicable field pairs are changed as the vehicle travels along the path to provide maximum protection corresponding to the vehicle movement 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

Laser obstacle detection

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

Laser obstacle detection

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

Mechanical bumpers

• Uses a limit switch to stop operation of vehicle when it contacts an obstacle

• The detection field is typically a plastic, flexible metal, or foam bumper material that will compress/collapse when contacting the obstacle and activate the limit switch

• Has fixed bumper size/shape and bumpers that may require maintenance and replacement

• Will push light materials such as waste materials out of the path of vehicle

• Less affected by dirt/dust than laser bumpers 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles operate safely in my facility?

ANSI B56.5 provides guidelines regarding vehicle safety ANSI/ITSDF B56.

5-2012 Safety Standard for Driverless, Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles and Automated Functions of Manned Industrial Vehicles

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles be able to move the loads?

Masted vehicles

• The most flexible vehicle type

• Able to interface with the floor and block stacking, racking, stands and conveyors

• Resemble typical manual lift truck models (counterbalanced, reach, outrigger)

• Can be fitted with typical manual lift truck load handling attachments (forked, clamp, single/double) 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles be able to move the loads?

Unit load vehicles

• Very compact design with vehicle typically directly under the load

• Able to interface with stands, and conveyors

• Load handling typically via conveyor or lift on the top of the vehicle

• May have no load handling ability if loaded/unloaded by external means (crane, etc) 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles be able to move the loads?

Tow vehicles

• Sometimes called tugger vehicle

• Tows several (typically up to 3) wheeled carts

• Loads must be placed on and off carts manually or via some other automated machinery

• Provides most economical solution (fewer vehicles) than solutions where only one load is carried per trip 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles be able to move the loads?

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 Will vehicles be able to move the loads?

Custom vehicles

• Designed to move unique loads

• Size, shape and capacity can vary considerably

• More commonly used in support of manufacturing to move work-inprocess or finished goods 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How are the vehicles powered?

Types of batteries, inductive power and fuel cells

• Most common batteries Flooded lead acid Sealed batteries NiCad Lithium ion

• Inductive power – vehicle receives power from plate(s) embedded in the floor. Used in some applications that require less flexibility

• Fuel cells – performing well in limited scale use in AGVs. ROI and refilling infrastructure can be a challenge

• The best choice of battery is based on your application. Talk to your AGV supplier to determine which battery is best for your application.

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How maneuverable are the vehicles?

Drive configurations

• Defined by the arrangement of wheels on the vehicle and by which wheels are driven and have steering

• Determines the maneuverability of the vehicle

• Also affects the vehicle complexity and cost

• Most common types include tricycle, differential, quad, and other 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How maneuverable are the vehicles?

Tricycle drive

• Most common on AGVs

• Provides precise vehicle tracking

• Maneuverability acceptable for most applications

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How maneuverable are the vehicles?

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How maneuverable are the vehicles?

Quad drive

• Two steer and drive motors

• Maneuverable – can rotate around the center of the vehicle and move sideways

• More complex than other drive configurations

–  –  –

8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 How maneuverable are the vehicles?

Other drive configurations

• Special drive arrangements can be used to provide for unique applications requiring high capacity limited wheel /floor loading other environmental conditions 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 What type of controls are on the vehicles?

Vehicle controller– PC-based or other controller in the vehicle that includes processor and I/O to provide navigation, communication and operation of the vehicle Manual controls – Allows manual operation of the vehicle Maintenance/Operator interface – provides calibration, troubleshooting, verification of vehicle parameters Motor (AC or DC) – motors that provide steering and x,y vehicle movement Motor controller (AC or DC) – provide the control signal to the motors for vehicle movement 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199 What type of controls are on the vehicles?

Navigation controls – provides real time feedback on actual vehicle position for navigation of the vehicle in the facility Load position verification sensors – sensors mounted to the load handling attachment to make sure that the load is positioned correctly during vehicle operation Interface “handshake” sensors - sensors mounted on the vehicle and interface equipment that provide communication link to ensure smooth load transfer Obstacle detection sensors – sensors on the vehicle which bring the vehicle to a safe stop before contacting any obstacle that it may encounter in its path 8720 Red Oak Blvd., Suite 201 | Charlotte, NC 28217-3992 USA Phone: (704) 676-1190 | FAX: (704) 676-1199

For More Information:

–  –  –





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