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Dr. Semih Halil EMÜR




Serhat BİLEN


Keywords : Consensus, communicative interaction, equality, negotiation, sustainability, participation, Eplanning, E-Governance

In the Information age with the development of technology and information sector, knowledge production

and skilled human factor is gaining importance and continuity of education come to the fore. With the new developments of communication technologies, data and information can be collected, managed, stored more efficiently and can be transferred from one platform to another with networks. Also, human capabilities can be raised to a higher level by the combination of computer and communication technologies. Management styles can be changed and different groups may be involved in interact on a planning problem and negotiations by the development of communication technologies. Environment aiming to eliminate misinformation and meanings can provide provide the rethinking and taking into consideration of the demands of public.

The development of communication technology creates new dimensions of participation in planning. Multi cultural approaches support the equity and interaction in procedures and new virtual spheres have to be constructed in the planning in order to embed information and produces about the demands of the citizen.

In the study, the structure of the participation/interaction model which is supported with the rules of egovernance depends on democratic rules is defined and principles of negotiation is put forward.

1. Communicative Rationality (Theory of Communicative Action; Habermas) Habermas divides the communication action theory that occured at the social level into two section;

strategre action and communicative action. İn strategre action, the actor is trying to impress the continuation of interaction in terms of desire which is the opposite to the promise or the satesfaction of threads. In communicative action, unlike the strategre action, actors involves a persvation of rationality by relying on the binding effect of conversation. Thus, communicative action requires rational persuative conversation in order to provide a joint agreement.

Most of instrumental actions are actually a strategre action but only some of strategre action is instrumental against it. On the other hand, communicative action is completely independent and different types of social action. This type of action, con not be defined as an effect others action that in order to achieve goals. By the way globally, it should be understood as a reach consensus or as an attemp to reach mutual understanding. In this regard, although all types of actions are purpose oriented aventually, the purpose to be achived in communicative action, is to reach a common understanding through the interpretation of ideas or throughts. In such a process, according to Habermas, less or more, people are agree on a valid argument which they put forward; also both sides mutually prove the validity of arguments and they have to allow a query on the validity of their arguments.

Alexy Habermas and Cohen stand out the following principles to evaluate the ethical approach;

The opportunity of talk and action never be exculeded from the produces.

• Everyone has the right of questioning and equal chance their needs as arguments.

• The rights never be blocked with internal or external pressures.

• Everyone has the right to discuss and control the agenda.

• Everyone has the right to talk reflexive arguments and take abaout the rules of proceses, applications • and execution.

Discourses must be public.

• By these principles, Habermas defines the ethical care conditions which quarantee the process of debate and discussion. These, conditions universal and applicable include secure the rights of participation, free discussion and determining the agande without any pressure. Accordingly, people can participate in discussions (principle of accesibility), and participants equally and freely able to contribute ( principle of disuursive equality) in arguments. In that case, Habermas’s theory of communicative action and the rules of athical discussion provide an ideal base for discussion produces.

According to Habermas, produces for addressing social problems through deliberative democracy will provide a development in totalitarian decision-making produces, and in collective actions of management of the social and economic life. Through a democratic debate in the public sphere will widen the horizon of individuals and allow then to be aware of the new analysis and solutions that may escape attention.

Habermas declared that the norms that are effective in a democratic society can only be the product of negotiations that take place between public citizens. But, only a political system based on a public debate can give a validility to the norms. It is also essential fort he formation of a public space/sphere that include equal paerticipation and communication. Instead of imposing the non-validate norms which can not provide spheres to act freely, ideally, it should be a real political negotiations will lead a rational consensus on norms.

2. Description of E-Government Baştan and Gökbun (2004.72): define the term e-government as a management system between the government, local organizations, citizens and companies ( business) in the level of exchange of information and in the level of quality that depends on equal distribution, speed, efficiency, effectiveness, transpanency, ensure accountability. Access of information and authorization usage of citizens in submission of public services is based on the management system 24 hours a day 7 days.

E-Government is the use of communication and information technology to facilitate the daily administrative tasks. Information technology is transforming the relationships between businesses and other government departments into digital form. Eloctronic government is all public services that aims to create digital value by voice and image processing in a open access network or in a limited access closed network enviroment.

Although the concept of e-government operations seems to be electronically transfer system, the communication technology has a instrumental meaning. It is used to be transparent, accountable,cheaper and closer to the citizens by sharing certain information, while preserning the concept of state, growing electronic will describe the new form of a state as original.

Basic Components of the State The E-government concept require a huge conceptual change in the governmental services; collecting information, avaluating, sharing and distribution through the information and communication baekbone.

Therefore, most of the citizens of the state and institutions are faced with a great change in the egovernment model.

Thus, the basic elements of e-government;

E-agency E-company E-citizen E-employee / E-officer These factors are interacting with each other as well as themselves Graph1: E-Government Structure Source: Turkey Bilişim Surası E-devlet Çalışma Grubu Raporu, 04-May 2002.

2.1.1 Citizens (e-Citizen) The interaction between citizen and public institutions or organizations defined as e-citizen. E-citizen are individuals that have an ability to interact with e-government communication skills and this process can be summerized with these oparations.

2.1.2 E-Company Companies always follow new innovations faster than the state organizations and they are esaier to adopt and implemant the new systems that they can be seen as e-company in the trade relations. As a result of competitive business World, companies take place in e-commerce and similar projects. State have to be included in the business network enviroment that approval and control of the state is regularly needed in institutional interaction such that commerical law, tax low, business law etc.

2.1.3 Institutions (E-Institution) Institutions are the complemantary of the network enviroment where citizens and companies both take place in each side. Institutions are defined as e-institutions in the concept of e- government. Mostly used institutions can be transformed to network sphere that they are often referenced in everyday life. Also, municipalities, associations, foundations, non-govermental organizations,universities, other educational institutions etc. Similar institutions are complementary institutionsand should be take place in the network sphere. (e-government organization) The institutions which are demanded everyday sevices by citizens for many times and for various reasons have to be on the network enviroment. In this context, einstitutions often use web services equipped with functions and information in the network enviroment.

2.1.4 E-officer State employees in the construction of e-government services have an important posion. Despite all the advances of communication technology during the provision of services, people still have a demand on officer as face to face rlations. The number of qualified staff who is capable of information technology is important in the institutions. Also citizens who has a reliable ability and authority in this context can be defined as e-officer.

3. Comparison of E-Government and Traditional State In comparison of the traditional state and e-government, the positive impact of quality factors on egovernment is rather than traditionl one. In traditional produces in public life, citizens or institutions, are based on face to face meetings with relevant units. In this sense, most of the face to face relations are d,sappeared such tahat form filling, writing a petition etc. because of e-government produres. Thus, produres can be driven from networks instead of govermental conters or places.

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Schematically, in public institutions of traditional state, the relation is realized between citizen and information system which provides the information that citizen demanded. In traditional system it seems impossible for the citizens direct access to information. Public institutions store and keep the knowledge which is generated in the background located in information system and access the necessary information demanded and transfer to citizens. Communication and information sharing between institutions and enterprice information systems are weak. Information request procedures have to be driven personally through institution or face to face relations. In this system, it is inevitable that bureaucratic and paperbased process, repeats and time losses are the general characteristics of conflicts between citizens and public institutions with a vertical organization.

Graph 2: The change in the structure of Traditional State Source: Murat İnce; (2001), Elektronik Devlet: Kamu Hizmetlerinin Sunulmasında Yeni İmkanlar, Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı Yayını, Ankara, pp. 24.

Public institutions are implementing various e-government projects in Turkey. E-government is carried out through the portal of public service delivery in general in Turkey, serving some of the e-government

applications include:

Central Population Management System (CCMS) • Identity Sharing System, • Address Registration System, • Tax Department Automation Project (VEDOP I-II) • National Judicial Network Project (UYAP) • Modernization Project of Customs (GIMOP) • Police Information Network (POLNET) • Accounting Office Automation System (Say2000i) • E-Statement, • Medulla (General Health Insurance, Pension Fund, Bağkur, the conduct of the Social Insurance • Agency and Green Card applications) applications, Prime Legislative Information System.

• The project, serves three main parts, namely in the form of citizen-business-state as in many developed

countries. Some of the benefits of the project are:

Personal information protection, • Providing personalized service, • Ensuring inter-agency information sharing, • Provide the services offered electronically from a single site, • Many services can be easily reached, • Ensuring high-security facilities in electronic services, • Introduce a simplified payment infrastructure for services that require payment.

• Some of the e-Government Implementation Status Accepted by the EU's 20 Basic Public Service in Turkey and EU,

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Information can be defined as all the things in the world as discrete or concrete. Also communication technology is a complete tool of transport infrastructure to carry out information to aware and quick access to them. By the way, with this technology all type of data can be transferred to provide the information. In fact, planning starts with the access to the database. And state have to provide the technology and services of communication infrastructure. In this sense, common knowledge starts to become a culture and by sharing the information, democratic rules also can be activated. In case, education and awareness level is also activated in order to ensure the participation. State that improve the level of electronic services provide to occur common intellectual information. So, the higher levels of organization point out that the higher level of democracy.

In a citizen oriented planning (e-planning) concept, a dialog area based on oral statements have to be constructed. In primitive state area, state and individual demands meet, but with the activation of participation, primitive area changes into a command zone that citizens get into the public axis by providing single channel such an interaction. State and society’s level of democracy increases with increasing interaction and feedback by a multi channel communication. While citizens need a state authority, they move to a citizen oriented system. Thus this defines the limits of sevice and activity ara between state and citizen.

E-planning is a planning procedure in a e-government structure with the high level participation. E-plnnimg is defining a transition procedure from instrumental rationality to communicative rationality with t changing the definition of information and in order to reach individuals, it uses communication effectively. The procedures of e-planning are based on communicative interaction.

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