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«Evaluation of ARA Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (CH) Fuel Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) Program Submitted by Pratt & Whitney ...»

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Evaluation of ARA

Catalytic Hydrothermolysis

(CH) Fuel

Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions

and Noise (CLEEN) Program

Submitted by Pratt & Whitney

DOT/FAA/AEE/2014-08

CLEARED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION.

The Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) Program is

a Federal Aviation Administration NextGen effort to accelerate

development of environmentally promising aircraft technologies and

sustainable alternative fuels. The CLEEN Program is managed by the FAA’s Office of Environment and Energy.

The report presented herein is a report deliverable submitted by Pratt & Whitney for a project conducted under the CLEEN Program to evaluate the feasibility of selected alternative fuels as viable drop-in replacements to petroleum jet fuel. This project was conducted under FAA other transaction agreement (OTA) DTFAWA-10-C-00041. This is report number DOT/FAA/AEE/2014-08 by the FAA’s Office of Environment and Energy.

CLEARED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION.

Pratt & Whitney Pratt & Whitney 400 Main Street East Hartford, CT 06108 A United Technologies Company

In reply please refer to:

SSC:DTFAWA-10-C-00041/15 30 April 2014

FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

Jared Tritle, Contracting Officer 800 Independence Avenue, SW Room 402 Washington, D.C. 20591 Subject: FINAL REPORT, PUBLIC RELEASE VERSION, FR-27652-2a Reference: Contract No. DTFAWA-10-C-00041, Item No. 15 In accordance with the applicable requirements under the referenced contract, Pratt & Whitney herewith submits one (1) copy of the Public Release version of the Final Report for the subject contract.

Sincerely, Sarah Christopher Program Data Manager

With enclosure:

FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

Gonca Birkan, Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative 800 Independence Avenue, SW Room 900 Washington, D.C. 20591 Rhett Jeffries CLEEN Program Manager Federal Aviation Administration 800 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, D.C. 20591 FR-27652-2 Rev 1 22 April 2014

CONTINUOUS LOWER ENERGY, EMISSIONS, AND NOISE

(CLEEN) PROGRAM

APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES (ARA)

CATALYTIC HYDROTHERMOLYSIS (CH)

Prepared for FAA Office of Environment and Energy Prepared under Contract No. DTFAWA-10-C-00041 In Response to CDRL No. 15 Prepared by

–  –  –

1.0 Executive Summary

2.0 Introduction

3.0 Approach

3.1 Test Facility

3.2 Test Fuels

3.3 Engine Tests

3.4 Single Nozzle Can Combustor Rig Tests

4.0 Results and Discussion

4.1 Fuel Properties

4.2 Fuel System Components

4.3 Engine Operability

4.4 Engine Performance

4.5 Smoke and Emissions

4.6 Can Combustor Cold Start

4.7 Can Combustor Altitude Relights

5.0 Conclusions

6.0 References

Appendix A Fuel Properties Analysis

–  –  –

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page Figure 1. Emissions Sampling System

Figure 2. Fuel Supply System

Figure 3. Forward Bodies Manoeuvre

Figure 4. Reverse Bodies Manoeuvre

Figure 5. Flow Number for Each Fuel Nozzle Before and After the Engine Tests

Figure 6. Engine Emissions Comparison of Jet A-1 and ARA CH Biofuel Blends

Figure 7. Smoke Density Comparison Between Smoke Analyzer and LII Equipment

Figure 8. ARA CH Cold Start at 0°F

Figure 9. ARA CH Cold Start at -40°F

Figure 10. ARA CH Altitude Relight at 15kft

Figure 11. ARA CH Altitude Relight at 30kft

–  –  –

COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, USA ASTM International (Formally known as American Society for Testing and Materials), PA, USA Millipore®, also known as Merck Millipore, is a Registered Trademark of Merck KGaA of Darmstadt, Germany National Research Council (NRC) SGS Canada Incorporated (Formally known as Société Général de Surveillance) is part of SGS S.A., headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland Université Laval, Quebec, Canada Woodward Governor Company, CO, USA

–  –  –

1.0 Executive Summary This report documents the work performed by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) in evaluating synthetic paraffinic kerosene produced by the Applied Research Associates (ARA) Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (CH) Process. The work was performed under the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions, and Noise (CLEEN) program, Contract DTFAWA-10-C-00041. P&WC performed a PW615F engine test on a baseline Jet A-1, a 50/50 percent fuel blend of ARA CH/Jet A-1, and 100 percent ARA CH fuel. The objective was to determine the impact of ARA CH on engine performance, operability, and emissions. The PW615F is a 1,460 pound thrust, two-spool turbo fan with a reverse-flow combustor and dual-channel full authority digital engine control (FADEC).





Specific fuel consumption (SFC), gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke number, and particulate matter (PM) by Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) were measured at six points in engine performance. These points were ground idle (GI), 30 percent power, 50 percent power, 85 percent power, 93 percent power, and 100 percent takeoff power (1,460lbf thrust).

No difference was observed in engine operability for the ARA CH fuel blends compared to the baseline Jet A-1 fuel. No negative impact was observed on SFC, gaseous emissions, smoke number, or PM.

Inspection of fuel system components showed no adverse effects from operation on the CH fuel blend.

Metallic debris was found during preservation of the fuel metering unit (FMU), following the production Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) performed at Woodward Governor Company. The source of debris has not been identified, but is not believed to be related to CH fuel.

Under the direction of P&WC, Université Laval performed tests on a single nozzle can combustor test section. Ground starts at 50, 0, -20, -30, and -40 °F and altitude relights at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 kft were performed. No starting differences or altitude relight lean boundary differences were observed. The rich limits were not achieved for the relights due to rig constraints.

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS NO TECHNICAL DATA SUBJECT TO THE EAR OR ITAR

Pratt & Whitney FR-27652-2 Rev 1

2.0 Introduction The objective of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) option to Demonstrate Alternate Fuels is to demonstrate feasibility of selected alternative fuels as viable drop-in candidates to petroleum-derived fuels. Depending on the objective and scope of the specific task, alternative fuel feasibility, performance, and operability may be determined through engine, component, or laboratory testing. The alternative fuels being evaluated are selected based on fuel readiness level and FAA approval, with input from the engine and airplane original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), the U.S. Air Force, and the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI).

ASTM International (ASTM) and the Department of Defense (DoD) are currently evaluating a biofuel process known as ARA CH, according to ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. Upon approval, it is expected that the CH process will be included as an annex in ASTM D7566, Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons. In August 2013, P&WC tested a PW615F engine at its Longueuil, Canada facility. The objective of this initiative was to determine the impact of CH on the performance properties, operability characteristics, and emissions of a gas turbine engine. In July 2013, Université Laval, under the direction of P&WC, tested a generic can combustor to determine the impact of CH on turbine engine combustor cold starting and altitude relight characteristics.

–  –  –

3.0 Approach

3.1 Test Facility Engine testing was performed on a PW615F engine, Serial Number 6157 Build 12, at the P&WC engine test facility 1-18 in Longueuil, Canada. Engine installation is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

–  –  –

3.2 Test Fuels

Test fuels included the following:

• Baseline Jet A-1 • 100 percent ARA CH

• Fuel blend of 50 volume percent ARA CH and 50 volume percent Jet A-1.

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) supplied all test fuels required for the engine and combustor tests. The same batch of Jet A-1 that was used in the baseline testing was also used to formulate the 50 percent ARA CH/50 percent Jet A-1 blend. Preparation of each fuel blend was conducted at the National Research Council (NRC).

Each test fuel was analyzed to evaluate conformity against the ASTM D1655 “Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels.” The properties evaluation of each fuel sample was performed at SGS Canada Incorporated (SGS) laboratory in Montreal, Canada, which is a P&WC approved laboratory.

Results are presented in Section 4.1 of this report.

Test sequence was: baseline Jet A-1, 100 percent ARA CH, 50 percent ARA CH/50 percent Jet A-1, then repeated baseline Jet A-1. This provided the opportunity to document any deterioration in engine performance from the initial baseline. 268 gallons of each fuel blend were supplied for the engine tests.

The engine fuel system and the facility fuel system were purged between each test to remove any residual fuel before testing the next fuel. The test sequence was completed in 12.2 hours of engine operation.

3.3 Engine Tests P&WC performed PW615F engine tests on the baseline Jet A-1 fuel, 100 percent ARA CH fuel, and 50 percent ARA CH/50 percent Jet A-1 fuel to determine the impact of CH fuel on engine performance, operability, and emissions. The PW615F is a 1,460lb thrust, two-spool turbo fan with a reverse-flow combustor and dual-channel FADEC. Prior to each engine test, a new engine fuel filter was installed and a fuel sample was taken. At the conclusion of each engine test, the fuel filters were inspected for indication of contamination and the fuel samples were analyzed to verify that the baseline fuel and the CH fuel blend conformed to ASTM D1655. SFC, gaseous CO, UHC, CO2, and NOx emissions, smoke

number, and PM by LII were measured at six engine performance points:

• GI • 30 percent power • 50 percent power • 85 percent power • 93 percent power • 100 percent takeoff power (1,460lbf thrust).

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS NO TECHNICAL DATA SUBJECT TO THE EAR OR ITAR

Pratt & Whitney FR-27652-2 Rev 1 The basic criteria used to evaluate successful operation of the PW615F engine during smoke and

emissions testing were as follows:

• No visible smoke and no substantial changes in emissions

• Verified repeatability of data measurements

• No hardware deterioration or carbon buildup between the runs, as determined by borescope inspection.

Engine operability for the CH fuel blends was compared to the baseline Jet A-1 fuel test results.

Operability metrics included impact on engine start to GI, engine transient times from idle to takeoff power and from takeoff to idle power, flameout margin, and forward and reverse engine bodies between idle and takeoff power.

–  –  –

After completion of the test program, before initiating the engine tests, a visual inspection of the combustor fuel nozzles was completed to determine if operation on CH adversely affected these components. The fuel manifold assembly was flow checked and the 14 individual fuel nozzles were tested for spray angle pattern and uniformity coverage at the P&WC Mississauga facility. The FMU was completely characterized using production ATP-178 at the supplier facility, Woodward Governor Company.

3.4 Single Nozzle Can Combustor Rig Tests Under the direction of P&WC, Université Laval performed rig tests on a single fuel nozzle generic can combustor test section for each of the test fuels. The combustor operability tests included cold starts and altitude relights, as defined below.

Cold Starts: Cold start mapping was performed at sea level with a constant combustor inlet pressure (P3) for each test fuel. Cold start mapping was performed with a pressure differential (dP) across the combustor, ranging from one to ten inches of water at five different combustor inlet air temperatures (T3) of 50, 0, -20, -30, and -40 °F. The objective was to determine the minimum fuel flow rate at which cold start is successful under each of these conditions. With igniter turned on, a successful light-up was defined as lighting within ten seconds of fuel on, followed by five seconds of sustained flame. Three successful lights were required at the same fuel flow rate to define the cold start boundary at each T3 and dP condition.

Altitude Relights: Altitude relight tests were performed on each test fuel to determine the maximum and minimum fuel-to-air ratio limits for which relight is successful. Mapping was initiated at 15,000ft, with a dP across the combustor ranging from one to three percent dP/P3. Relights were performed at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 kft. At higher altitudes, the maximum combustor pressure drop achieved was lower. Rich limits were not determined, due to rig constraints. With the igniter turned on, a successful light-up was defined as lighting within ten seconds of “fuel on,” followed by five seconds of sustained flame. Three successful lights were required at the same fuel flow rate to define the altitude relight fuel flow rate at each T3 and dP condition.

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS NO TECHNICAL DATA SUBJECT TO THE EAR OR ITAR

Pratt & Whitney FR-27652-2 Rev 1

4.0 Results and Discussion



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