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«PLEASE DO NOT DESTROY THIS R,EPORT. IF RETURNED TO THE DIVISION OF MINES, MINING & GEOLOGY, 425 STATE CAPITOL, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, POSTAGE WILL BE ...»

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PLEASE DO NOT DESTROY THIS R,EPORT. IF RETURNED TO THE DIVISION OF MINES,

MINING & GEOLOGY, 425 STATE CAPITOL, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, POSTAGE WILL BE REFUNDED

STATE OF GEORGIA

E. D. RIVERS, Governor

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

R. F. BURCH, Commissioner

DIVISION OF MINES, MINING, AND GEOLOGY

CAPTAIN GARLAND PEYTON, Director SUPPLE:MENT TO

SEDIMENTARY KAOLINS OF GEORGIA

By ARTHUR C. MUNYAN Geologist

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA

BULLETIN NO. 44-A

THE STEIN PRINTING COMPANY

ATLANTA, GEORGIA •

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

DIVISION OF MINES, MINING AND GEOLOGY,

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES,

ATLANTA, GEORGIA, JUNE 27, 1938.

To His Excellency, E. D. RIVERS, Governor of Georgia, and R. F. BURcH, Commissioner of the Department of Natural Resources.

Sms: · I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication as a part of the series of bulletins entitled the Geological Survey of Georgia, a Supplement to the Sedimentary Kaolins of the Coastal Plain of Georgia.

Bulletin 44, The Sedimentary Kaolins of the Coastal Plain of Georgia, issued in 1929, has played a large part in the rapid development of Georgia's kaolin industry in the nine years that have elapsed since its publication.

During this time the yearly tonnage of kaolin mined in Georgia has doubled, becoming Georgia's principal mineral industry. Georgia now produces approximately 66 per cent of all of the pure white clay mined in the United States and over half of that consumed in this country. The future looks bright for a continued increase.

The purpose of this report is to describe the new deposits that have been prospected or developed since the publication of Bulletin 44, to note changes in ownership of the properties described in that report, and to further aid in the development of Georgia's growing kaolin industry.

Very respectfully yours,

CAPTAIN GARLAND PEYTON,

Director.

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page INTRODUCTION ______________________________________

________ ___________________________________ _ 1 HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY _____________________ __ _ ______________________________............. 1 Production and Consumption Statistics_______ 3

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY--------············

GEOLOGY OF THE COASTAL PLAIN...... -------------·-···-·-···-·-------·---·--------··--·-···---··-ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE SEDIMENTARY KAOLINS OF GEORGIA

DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITS BY COUNTIES ______ 10 Taylor CountY----·--------------------·-------·---------------·---·-------·-----------------------·-------·---·---·--··-------· 10 Crawford CountY-----------------------------------------·-------·---·---·-------·-------·------ -- - - - -- 11 Houston CountY-----------------------------·---------------------~------ 11 Twiggs CountY---·---·---·---·-----------·--------------------·------·-·-----------------------------------·---··-------·--·--·· 11 New Properties... ------------------·----·----------·----------··---------------------------------------------------···------ 16 Wilkinson CountY--------------·-----·------------------------ - -··-----·-··-------- - - - -· 20 New Properties... -------------------------------·--·--·····--····-------·-·--·······················-········ ·-- ····--· 26 Baldwin CountY---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 Hancock Coun~Y----------------· · --·-·----------- ---------·-· ····· ··· ·· --- --·-·· ·--···-·- 28 Washington County ____________ ---------·-----------·,

New Properties------------------------------------------···-··--·---·------------·-··--.. ·---··- ------·------···. 32 Glascock County

Richmond CountY-------------·--------·-------·-- ·---·-----·-·-·-· 34 BAUXITE DEPOSITS OF THE COASTAL PLAIN ______________________________________________ 37 Sumter CountY----------------------------------------------- - - - - - --------- 37 Warm Springs District·---------------------------- --------·······-------······--·--··---·__ 38 FUTURE OF THE INDUSTRY

–  –  –

FRONTISPIECE-PLATE I. Georgia Kaolin Co. Mine No.6, near Dry Branch, Twiggs CountY-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plate II. Georgia Kaolin Co. Mine No. 6, six miles southeast of Dry Branch, Twiggs CountY-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Plate III. Movable dragline scraper owned by P. W. Martin Gordon Clays, Inc.

This machine is used to remove overburden__________________________________________ 22 Plate IV. Mining operations of.Albion Kaolin Co., near Hephzibah, Richmond County _........ _____________, ______.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....... 84

–  –  –





INTRODUCTION

This report has been prepared as a supplement to the Georgia Geological Survey Bulletin, Number 44, "Sedimentary Kaolins of Georgia" by Richard W. Smith. Being a supplement it does not contain the detailed information of Smith's paper, but has been assembled with the intention of noting all new developments in the kaolin industry of the State, as well as all changes in property ownership of land underlain by deposits of sedimentary kaolin. It.is advisable for the reader to secure a copy of Bulletin 44 because frequent reference is made to it in this report.

This survey was authorized by Mr. Richa1·d W. Smith who u.ntil recently was Acting Director of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology. Mt·.

Smith recognized tlmt many changes lu~ve taken J)lace in the kaolin industry since the publication of Bulletin 44 in 19!t9. The investigation occupied more than two months' time in the field. No samples were taken for testing, nor were any borings made; aU examinations were visual and generally confined to working operations.

The following counties were visited in the course of field work: Baldwin, Glascock, Hancock, Richmond, Taylor, '.rwiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson. These counties lie entirely or partially within the Fall Line Hills dlvis.ion of the Georgia Coastal :Plain province, the area in which all of the sedimentary kaolins of the St.'tte aro mined.

The write1· wishes to aclmowledge his appreciation of the valuable assistance and criticism of Richard W. Smith; the pertinent collliil,ents of A. S. Fmcron; the courtesies a;nd assistance of the various newspaper editors of the State, a;nd the secretaries of many Chambers of Commerce for publicity purposes; and the cooperation of the executives of the kaolin mines and plants. He especially wishes to thank Capt. Peyton for the opportunity of publishing the results.

HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY

The earliest record of the use of Georgia kaolin for commercial purposes is that noted by Sholes1 in his ''Chronological History of Savannah" in which he states that a Mr. Duchet discovered porcelain clay near SavanSholes,A. E., Chronological History of Savannah, Ills; p. 47, Savannah Morning News (publishers). 1900.

SEDIMENT.dRY K.dOLINS nah, and nuuie china cups from it in 1741. There are legends to the effect that even prior to this, the Governor of the Province of Georgia learned of the presence of such clays and had some shipped to the famous Wegdewood pottery in England. Soon a£ter this discovery a rather flourishing t1·ade grew up between the colony and England and existed until the English kaolins were discovered. The presence oi good kaolin so close to the consun,er (Wedgewood) natura.lly forced a cessation of operation in Georgia, and it was not until over o:ne hundred years later that the industry in the State again started functioning.~ Several companies were organized and operated for a l'l.umbe1· of years mining and shipping air-dried crude kaolin to the markets in the north and east.

In 1900 two companies begtm operations and are continuing in business today. These are the Georgia Kaolin Company, located at Dry Branch in Twiggs County, and the Albion Kaolin Company located at Hephzibah in Richmond County. Othel' companies mining kaolin in the State at present include: Edgar Brothers Company, Mcintyre;,John Sant and Company, Dry Branch; Haa·bison-Walker :Mining Company, G01·don and Gibson; Gordon Clays, Inc., Gordon; Dixie Fire-proofing Company, Carxs Station; Georgia Coating Clay Company, Macon; Hall md Stephens, Mcintyre; Carolina. China Clay Company, Butler; Champion Pape1· and Fibre Company, Sandersville; General Refractories Company, Stevens Pottery ; and Clinchfield Portland Cement Company, Clinchfield. In addition to these, at least two newcomers are assembling equipment to begin operations in the near future. One of these is the United Clay Mines of Sandersville. Other companies using, but not mining kaolin in this area, are the Bttbcock Wilcox Company, of Augusta; and the Cherokee China Company, Inc., Citizens and Southern National Bank, Atlanta., Georgia, with plant at Gordon. Georgi..1.. The latter company is 'not ready for operation yet. Several other companies were formed and operated for a while, but the majority of these have been absorbed by mergers with one or another of the existing organizations listed above. A. few were forced to suspend operations on account of abnoxmal business conditions in the past few years.

A.s stated in Bulletin 44, the first mining rnethods were indeed crude compared to those employed today. All of the larger operators now depend on mechanjc.'tl means of stripping overburden and for mining kaolin. Due to special condition~! in several mines, the kaolin must be gotten out by pick and shovel. No company now uses the.hydraulic method of mining although undex coiTect conditions for its use it could possibly he employed to great advantage. 2 Processes foT treatment of kaolin have been improved in the last few years so that a very unifmm produC't from each plant is now on tho market.

Also ''blends" and special grades of kaolin are produced by tb.ese plants to meet the demands of the consumers, such requirements being either anlSmith, R. W., Sedimentary ltaolins of the Coastal Plain of Georgia, Georgia Geol.

SW'\'CY B\lll. 44, pp. l-4, 19.29.

~Henry, A. V.; an~ Vaughn, W. H.,.Geologic and technologic aspects of the sedimentary kaohns: Am. lust. Min. Met. Eng. Tech. Pub. 774, Jan., 1937.

HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY 3

ticipated or scientifically worked out in the modern and well-equipped laboratories maintained by each company.

As in former years the bulk of production is still used in the paper industry for both coating and filling purposes. Another steadily increasing use of Georgia kaolin is in refractories and white ware. Recent reports from the Babcock and Wilcox Company and the Dixie Fireproofing Company, indicate that both plants are running at full capacity and have been for some time past. In fact it appears that most of the kaolin companies have emerged from the depression stronger than ever and with prospects of a very bright future. They.should be given much credit, not only for their perserverance in the face of great difficulties, but also for their success in proving to American consumers that the quality of Georgia kaolins equals, if not excels, that produced by any foreign nation.

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION STATISTICS

The following figures and charts will undoubtedly prove that the value of Georgia sedimentary kaolins is not to be passed over lightly when dealing with the State's natural resources. In fact it can be shown that the sedimentary kaolins are the most valuable mineral asset now being exploited in the state. The chart below was taken from one prepared by Reis in a recent paper1 ; the production figures for 1935 and 1936 have been added

to the chart :

–  –  –

Analysis of this chart, with tonnage figures obtained from the United States Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook for 1937 shows that Georgia produced 66 per cent of the total kaolin output of the United States.

Additional information on the types of clays and values will be found in the following chart. It is intended to supplement the one in Bulletin 44

on page 4:

lReis, H., Clay, Industrial minerals and rocks; (Seeley W. Mudd series) Am. Inst.

Min. Met. Eng., p. 227, 1937.

SEDIMENT.dRY KAOLINS

–  –  –

Clay used for refractories not given separately.

The above chart shows clearly the steady incroo.se in tonnage and, consequently, the value of the sedimentary kaolins of the Coastal Plain of the State. Some comparison with t he values of the other minet•als produced in Georgia may be of interest since it shows without doubt the outstanding value of the kaolins as a natUI·al resource of the State.

–  –  –

Since the above figures indicate that the sedimentary kaolins are the most valuable natural resource so far developed in Georgia, it would be well for the citizens of the State to interest themselves in protecting and fostering this great industry so that it will continue to grow and to add to the inherent wealth of the State.

It is advocated that a program of additional research on the kaolins be instituted and carried forward for many years to come, in order that new uses, as well as markets be found to augment the present production and sale of the clay. It is only by research work that such objects can be attained most easily and economically, and at the same time be founded on a firm scientific basis.

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAYS



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