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«Evaluation Country Programme between Finland and Nicaragua Evaluation report 2012:1 MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF FINLAND ...»

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Country Programme between

Finland and Nicaragua

Evaluation report 2012:1


Country Programme between Finland and Nicaragua

REPORT 2012:1

ISBN: 978-951-724-983-6 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-984-3 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618

Junior Professional Officer Programme of Finland

REPORT 2011:5

ISBN: 978-951-724-966-9 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-967-6 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Finnish Aid for Trade

REPORT 2011:4

ISBN: 978-951-724-964-5 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-965-2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 VERIFIN Training Programme on Verification of Chemical Weapons

REPORT 2011:3

ISBN: 978-951-724-951-5 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-952-2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Results-Based Approach in Finnish Development Cooperation

REPORT 2011:2

ISBN: 978-951-724-941-6 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-942-3 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Finnish Support to Energy Sector

REPORT 2011:1

ISBN: 978-951-724-894-5 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-895-2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Agriculture in the Finnish Development Cooperation

REPORT 2010:6

ISBN: 978-951-724-896-9 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-897-6 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Forestry Sector: Preliminary Study REPORT 2010:5/III ISBN: 978-951-724-880-8 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-881-5 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Finnish Support to Forestry and Biological Resources. Country and Regional Reports REPORT 2010:5/II (Parts 1 Kenya, 2 Mozambique (Eng, Por), 3 Tanzania, 4 Zambia, 5 Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, 6 Vietnam, 7 Western Balkans, 8 Central America) ISBN: 978-951-724-878-5 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-879-2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Finnish Support to Forestry and Biological Resources REPORT 2010:5/I ISBN: 978-951-724-876-1 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-877-8 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Sustainability in Poverty Reduction: Synthesis

REPORT 2010:4

ISBN: 978-951-724-874-7 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-875-4 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 The Finnish Development Cooperation in the Water Sector

REPORT 2010:3

ISBN: 978-951-724-848-8 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-849-5 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Development Cooperation with Ethiopia 2000–2008

REPORT 2010:2

ISBN: 978-951-724-839-6 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-840-2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 The Transition Towards a New Partnership with Egypt

REPORT 2010:1

ISBN: 978-951-724-837-2 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-838-9 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Meta-Analysis of Development Evaluations in 2007 and 2008

REPORT 2009:9

ISBN: 978-951-724-809-9 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-810-5 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Natural Disasters, Climate Change and Poverty

REPORT 2009:8

ISBN: 978-951-724-807-5 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-808-2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 The North-South-South Higher Education Network Programme

REPORT 2009:7

ISBN: 978-951-724-790-0 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-791-7 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 DEMO Finland Development Programme

REPORT 2009:6

ISBN: 978-951-724-784 9 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-785 0 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Finnish Aid in Western Kenya; Impact and Lessons Learned

REPORT 2009:5

ISBN: 978-951-724-783-2 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-786-3 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Meta-analysis of Development Cooperation on HIV /AIDS

REPORT 2009:4

ISBN: 978-951-724-769-6 (printed), ISBN: 978-951-724-770 2 (pdf), ISSN: 1235-7618 Evaluation The Country Programme between Finland and Nicaragua

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The evaluation was commissioned by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland to S.A. AGRER N.V. The consultants bear the sole responsibility for the presented views of the report. The report does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland This report can be accessed at http://formin.finland.fi Hard copies can be requested from: EVA-11@formin.fi or Development Evaluation (EVA-11) The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland P.O. Box 451 FI-00023 GOVERNMENT Finland ISBN 978-951-724-983-6 (printed) ISBN 978-951-724-984-3 (pdf) ISSN 1235-7618 Cover photo: Outi Einola-Head Cover design: Anni Palotie Layout: Taittopalvelu Yliveto Oy Printing house: Kopijyvä Oy Translations from English to Finnish and Swedish by AAC Global Oy, further edited by EVA-11.

Anyone reproducing the content or part of the content of the report should acknowledge the source. Proposed reference: Caldecott J, van Sluijs F, Aguilar B & Lounela A 2012 Evaluation of the Country Programme between Finland and Nicaragua.

Evaluation report 2012:1. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Kopijyvä Oy, Jyväskylä, 103 p. ISBN 978-951-724-983-6 (printed).


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Nicaragua is one of the principal development cooperation partner countries of Finland. Over the years, the development cooperation programme has experienced a number of major changes both in terms of the consecutive development policies of Finland and in terms of major political changes in Nicaragua.

The evaluation report gives an account of Finland’s development policies during 2002-2010 and how it was transformed into cooperation programme with Nicaragua.

The external and internal factors that shaped the implementation and the significant shifts in the course of the last decade are elucidated and their influences on the identified strengths, weaknesses, and good and bad practices of the programme are analysed and discussed.

The evaluation of the development cooperation programme between Finland and Nicaragua is one of three evaluations of country programmes that the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland launched in early 2011. To strengthen coherence in analyses and in understanding of the programming process of Finland’s development policies, the three country programme evaluations – those of Nicaragua, Nepal and Tanzania – were performed by one larger evaluation team with multidisciplinary and country-specific competencies. The team worked in three, country-focused sub-teams with one and the same team leader.

Helsinki, 29.12.2011 Aira Päivöke Director Development Evaluation

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ix Nicaragua country programme FIDEG Fundación Internacional para el Desafío Económico Global (International Foundation for the Global Economic Challenge) FINNFOR Forests and Forest Management in Central America FIR Fondo de Inversiones para la Reconstrucción (Sandinist regime development cooperation authority) FN-organ United Nations organization (in Swedish text) FODINIC Strengthening Organisations of Disabled Persons in Nicaragua FOMEVIDAS Programa de Fortalecimiento Rural y Reducción de la Pobreza en Boaca y Chontales (Rural Strengthening and Poverty Reduction Programme in Boaca and Chontales) FONIM Fondo Nacional de Inversión Municipal (National Fund for Municipal Investment, a pooled fund mechanism established by the Municipal Transfer Act) FONSALUD Fondo Nicaragüense para la Salud (Nicaraguan Health Fund) FSLN Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (Sandinist National Liberation Front) FUNIDES Fundación Nicaragüense para el Desarrollo Económico y Social (Nicaraguan Foundation for Economic and Social Development) G/D Governance/decentralisation GBS General budget support GDP Gross domestic product GHG Greenhouse gas HAN Embassy of Finland in Hanoi, Vietnam HDI Human Development Index HIPC Highly Indebted Poor Country HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HIVOS Humanist Institute for Development Cooperation HQ Headquarters HRP Human Rights Programme ICI Institutional Cooperation Instrument ICJ International Court of Justice ICT Information and communication technology IDB Inter-American Development Bank (Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo) IDR Instituto de Desarrollo Rural (Rural Development Institute) i.e. id est (‘that is’) IEEPP Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas (Institute of Strategic Studies and Public Policies) IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFI International financial institution IICA Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture) IMF International Monetary Fund INAFOR Instituto Nacional Forestal (National Forestry Institute)

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xi Nicaragua country programme PCN Conservative Party of Nicaragua PGR Procuraduria General de la República (Office of the Procurator General of the Republic) PLC Partido Liberal Constitucionalista (Constitutional Liberal Party) PPP Purchasing power parity PRESANCA Central American Regional Programme for Food and Nutritional Security (Programa Regional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional para Centroamérica) PRGF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (of the IMF) PROAMBIENTE Institutional Support to Decentralized Environmental Management Programme PROASE Programa de Apoyo a la Transformación Estructural del Sistema Educativo (Education Sector Budget Support Programme) PROCAFOR Programa Centroamericano Forestal (Central American Forestry Programme) PRODEGA Proyecto de Desarrollo Rural Ganadero (Rural Livestock Development Project) PRODETEC Programa de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Technological Development Program) PROGÉNERO Programme for Promotion of Gender Equality and Women’s Rights PROGESTIÓN Programa de Gestion Municipal (a bilateral Municipal Management and Local Development Strengthening Programme) PROPEMCE Programa para la Promoción de Equidad Mediante el Crecimiento Económico (Programme for Promoting Equity through Economic Growth) PRORURAL Programa Sectorial del Desarrollo Rural y Productivo Sostenible (Rural Development and Sustainable Production Sector Programme) PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PYM Local Cooperation Fund (LCF) in Finnish language RAAN Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte (Autonomous Region of the Northern Atlantic Coast) RAAS Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur (Autonomous Region of the Southern Atlantic Coast) RDA Rural Development Adviser REDD Reduced [GHG] Emissions from Deforestation and [forest] Degradation SARED Programa Salud Reproductiva Equidad y Derechos (Reproductive Health, Equity and Rights Programme) SAREM Salud Reproductiva y Empoderamiento de la Mujer (Reproductive Health and Empowerment of Women) SBS Sectoral budget support SEPRES Secretariado de la Presidencia (Secretariat of the Presidency)

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Koko raportti on luettavissa osoitteessa http://formin.finland.fi ________________________________

TIIVISTELMÄ Evaluoinnin tarkoitus on selvittää Suomen kehityspolitiikan ja Nicaraguan kanssa tehdyn yhteistyön välisiä ohjelmointimekanismeja viime vuosikymmenen aikana. Toimintaan vaikuttivat vuosien 1998, 2001, 2004 ja 2007 kehityspoliittiset ohjelmat. Analyysissa käytettiin 14:ää kriteeriä. Työ tarkasteli kahta selkeää vaihetta: aika ennen ja jälkeen vuoden 2007 alkua, jolloin Nicaraguassa radikaali sandinistihallinto pääsi valtaan ja lähti toteuttamaan edeltäjiään ehdottomampaa ja köyhyyteen enemmän keskittynyttä ohjelmaa. Ensimmäistä vaihetta vastaavan Suomen maaohjelman pääteemat olivat terveyden, maaseutukehityksen ja paikallishallinnon tuki ja yleinen budjettituki (GBS), paikallisen yhteistyön määräraha (PYM) sekä vammais- ja ympäristöalojen ohjelmat.

Suomen vuoden 2004 kehityspoliittinen ohjelma johti siihen, että kolme pääteemaa säilytettiin GBS:n ja PYM:n ohella – muista ohjelmista luovuttiin vaiheittain. Samaan aikaan edustusto kehitti kolmen tärkeimmän teeman sektoriohjelmia (SWAp). Paikallishallinnon tukiohjelma vastasi yhteistyöhallituksen politiikassa painopisteeksi määritellyn hallinnon hajauttamisen tavoitteeseen. Myös poliittinen vuoropuhelu integroitiin ohjelmointiin. SWAp ja GBS miellettiin malliesimerkiksi Pariisin julistuksen toimeenpanosta. PYM tuki kansalaisyhteiskunnan täydentävää työtä.

Toisessa vaiheessa Nicaraguan ja Suomen näkemykset eriytyivät yhä enemmän. Vuoden 2007 kehitypolitiikan mukaisesti Suomen edustusto ja ulkoasiainministeriö (UM) laativat alkuvuodesta 2008 toimeenpanosuunnitelman (CAP) Nicaragualle. Siinä tuettiin kolmea SWAp:a, GBS:a ja hyödynnettiin PYM-instrumenttia. Nicaraguan hallitus uudisti jälleen hallintoaan, mikä aiheutti hallintoon keskittyneen SWAp:n epäonnistumisen vuonna 2009. Korvatakseen sekä SWAP:n että PYM:n, Suomi otti käyttöön uusia järjestelyjä rahoittaakseen kansalaisyhteiskunnan hallinto- ja ihmisoikeushankkeita, mikä näytti valtavirtaistavan läpileikkaavat teemat, mutta samalla polarisoivan tilanteen, joka johti jännitteisiin hallituksen kanssa ja vahingoitti kansalaisyhteiskuntaa.

Muut hallintoon ja oikeuksiin liittyvät erimielisyydet hallituksen ja avunantajien välillä johtivat siihen, että Suomi ja jotkin muut avunantajat jäädyttivät GBS:n ja useat avunantajat lähtivät maasta. Hallituksen köyhyyden poistamiseen keskittyneen politiikan Nicaragua country programme mukaiset terveyden ja maaseutukehityksen SWAp:t jatkuivat ainoina aiemmasta viidestä ohjelmasta. GBS:n lakkauttaminen oli erityisen merkittävää, sillä se oli arvioitu ratkaisevaksi köyhyyttä koskevan dialogin kannalta ja parhaaksi avun muodoksi yhteiskunnallisten tavoitteiden edistämisessä. Maaohjelman lopputuloksen katsotaan johtuvan kokemattoman yhteistyöhallituksen ehdottomuudesta yhdistettynä dialogin epäonnistumiseen hallituksen ja avunantajien välillä.

Avainsanat: Nicaragua, sandinistit, kehitysyhteistyöpolitiikka, maakohtainen ohjelmointi, kansalaisyhteiskunta

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Rapporten finns i sin helhet på adressen http://formin.finland.fi ________________________________


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