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«,,, 1 Dhammacakkappavattana Suttanta Introduction As a supplement to my original studies on the Parittas published some time ago I am glad to add to ...»

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,,, 1

Dhammacakkappavattana Suttanta

Introduction

As a supplement to my original studies on the Parittas published some time

ago I am glad to add to this monograph the text of the Dhammacakkappavattana

Suttanta and a very new translation of it I have made, together with a few

illuminating notes.

The Dhammacakkappavattana, we consider, is the best-ever presented

thesis for the award of a degree, the subject covering both planes of the mundane and the transcendental. The trustworthiness of data gathered together, and the precise mode of presentation of this sutta makes it unsurpassable. We take this sutta as the Buddha's first presentation of his religious message to the world, what he discovered as the truths of life of man, unpleasant though and even unacceptable to some in their reality, without any attempt at camouflage.

The authorship of this unpleasant lot of man, the Buddha lays at the door step of man himself and makes him responsible for working out his own salvation. It is not a divine revelation, with the possibility of divine intervention.

In its totality, the sutta contains both the theory and the practice of Buddhism, whether one calls it a reigion or a philosophy. Without both a convinced and comprehensive awareness of the unsatisfactory nature of life, namely dukkha, one will not turn with sufficient firmness in the direction of liberation or mutti which is Nirvana. Volumes can be sensibly written on the scope and content of this sutta. But we do not attempt it here.

Do not be merely lured by the musical charm of the recital of this sutta, or by the symbolic and ritualistic drumming and bell ringing that is associated with its recital. Follow carefully the instructions relating to the grasp of the realities of life as inunciated in the first and second truths or ariya-sacca. Note particularly the twelvefold presentation of the fourfold Truths. Then understand that your,,, 2 salvation lies in the achievement or attainment of the third sacca of nirodha.

These first three saccas make, more or less, the theory content of Buddhism.

Then come to the last of the saccas in magga or the way to achieve your desired goal.

This will convince you that merely listening in is no more than peripheral. At least gain an entry into the Path by coming to grips with sammādiṭṭhi or getting your vision as a Buddhist, corrected through a serious study of the Dhamma. We wish you luck.

Suttantaṃ Dhammacakkappavattana Suttantaṃ [The text as found at Samyutta Nikaya V. 420 - 424 and Vinaya I. 10 - 12] Evam me sutaṃ ekaṃ samayam Bhagavā Bārāṇasiyaṃ viharati Isipatane Migadāye. Tatra kho Bhagavā Pañcavaggiye bhikkhū āmantesi. Dve ' me bhikkhave antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā. Katame dve.

Yo c ' āyaṃ kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasaṃhito. Yo c ' āyam attakilamathānuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasaṃhito. Ete te bhikkhave ubho ante anupagamma majjhimā paṭipadā Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya samvattati.

Katamā ca sā bhikkhave majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya samvattati. Ayam eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo seyyath' īdaṃ sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi.

Ayaṃ kho sā bhikkhave majjhimā paṭipadā Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya samvattati.

,,, 3 Idaṃ kho pana bhikkhave dukkham ariyasaccaṃ. Jāti pi dukkhā jarā pi dukkhā vyādhi pi dukkho maraṇam pi dukkhaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā ' pi dukkhā. Appiyehi sampayogo dukkho piyehi vippayogo dukkho yam p ' icchaṃ na labhati tam ' pi dukkhaṃ. Saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.

Idaṃ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccaṃ. Yā ' yaṃ taṇhā ponobhavikā nandī rāgasahagatā tatra tatrābhinandinī seyyath' īdaṃ kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā.

Idaṃ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhanirodham ariyasaccaṃ. Yo tassā yeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo.

Idaṃ kho pana bhikkhave dukkhanirodhagāminīpaṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ. Ayam eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo seyyath' īdaṃ sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi.

Idaṃ dukkham ariyasaccan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan ' idaṃ dukkham ariyasaccam pariññeyyan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkham ariyasaccam pariññātan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi.

Idaṃ dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam pahātabban ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam pahīnan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko,,, 4





udapādi.

Idaṃ dukkhanirodham ariyasaccan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkhanirodham ariyasaccaṃ sacchikātabban ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkhanirodham ariyasaccaṃ sacchikatan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi.

Idaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminīpaṭipadā ariyasaccan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminīpaṭipadā ariyasaccam bhāvetabban ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi.

Taṃ kho pan' idaṃ dukkhanirodha-gāminīpaṭipadā ariyasaccam bhāvitan ' ti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi ñāṇam udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi.

Yāvakīvañ ca me bhikkhave imesu catusu ariyasaccesu evaṃ tiparivaṭṭaṃ dvādasākāraṃ yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ na suvisuddham ahosi n ' eva tāvāham bhikkhave sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhim abhisambuddho ' ti paccaññāsiṃ.

Yato ca kho me bhikkhave imesu catusu ariyasaccesu evaṃ tiparivaṭṭaṃ dvādasākāraṃ yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ suvisuddham ahosi athāham bhikkhave sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammā-sambodhim abhisambuddho ' ti paccaññāsiṃ. „āṇañ ca pana me dassanam udapādi. Akuppā me cetovimutti.

Ayam antimā jāti. Natthi ' dāni punabbhavo ' ti.

,,, 5 Idam avoca Bhagavā. Attamanā pañcavaggiyā bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitam abhinanduṃ. Imasmiñ ca pana veyyākaraṇasmim bhaññamāne āyasmato Koṇḍaññassa virajaṃ vītamalaṃ dhammacakkhum udapādi yaṃ kiñ ci samudayadhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhamman ' ti.

Evam pavattite ca pana Bhagavatā dhammacakke bhummā devā saddam anussāvesuṃ. Etam bhagavatā Bārāṇasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkam pavattitam appativattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā Brahmunā vā kena ci vā lokasmin ' ti.

Bhummānaṃ devānaṃ saddaṃ sutvā Cātummahārājikā devā saddam anussāvesuṃ Etam bhagavatā… Cātummahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ saddaṃ sutvā Tāvatimsā devā saddam anussāvesuṃ Etam bhagavatā… Yāmā devā… Tusitā devā… Nimmānaratī devā… Paranimmita-vasavattino devā… Brahmakāyikā devā saddam anussāvesuṃ Etam bhagavatā… lokasmin ' ti.

Iti ' ha tena khaṇena tena layena tena muhuttena yāva Brahmalokā saddo abbhuggañchi. Ayañ ca dasasahassī lokadhātu saṃkampi sampakampi sampavedhi. Appamāṇo ca ulāro obhāso loke pātur ahosi atikkamma devānaṃ devānubhāvan ' ti.

Atha kho bhagavā udānam udānesi. Aññāsi vata bho Koṇḍañño aññāsi vata bho Koṇḍañño ' ti. Iti ' h ' idam āyasmato Koṇḍaññassa Aññā Koṇḍañño tveva nāmam ahosī ' ti.

–  –  –

Group - of - Five and said: There are, O monks, two extremes which a pabbajita, i.e. one who has renounced household life, should not resort to. What two?

This practice of leaning towards the enjoyment of sense pleasures [kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo] which is low [hīno], rustic [gammo],vulgar [pothujjaniko],ignoble [anariyo] and associated with evil consequences [anatthasamhito]. And this other leaning towards self-torture which is painful [dukkho], ignoble [anariyo] and associated with evil consequences [anatthasamhito]. O monks, avoiding these two extremes, the middle way has been comprehended [abhisambuddhā] by the Buddha [Tathāgata] which generates the eye of vision [cakkhukaraṇī], generates wisdom [ñāṇakaraṇī], leads to tranquility [upasamāya], to higher wisdom [abhiññāya]. to full enlightenment [sambodhāya] and to the termination of Samsāra [nibbānāya].

What is that middle way which the Tathāgata has comprehended which generates the eye or vision [cakkhukaraṇī], generates wisdom [ñāṇakaraṇī], leads to tranquility [upasamāya], to higher wisdom [abhiññāya]. to full enlightenment [sambodhāya] and to the termination of Samsāra [nibbānāya].

It is this Noble Eightfold Path, namely corrected [sammā] view, corrected thought patterns [saṅkappo], corrected ways of speech [sammā vacā], corrected bodily activity [sammā kammanto], corrected forms of livelihood [sammā ājīvo], corrected forms endeavour [sammā vāyāmo], corrected mindfulness [sammā sati] and corrected concentration of mind [sammā samādhi].

This is that middle way which the Tathāgata has comprehended which generates the eye or vision [cakkhukaraṇī], generates wisdom [ñāṇakaraṇī], leads to tranquility [upasamāya], to higher wisdom [abhiññāya]. to full enlightenment [sambodhāya] and to the termination of Samsāra [nibbānāya].

–  –  –

and stress [domanassupāyāsā] are unsatisfactory. Being brought into the company of disagreeable persons [appiyehi sampayogo] is unsatisfactory, being taken away from the company of dear ones [piyehi vippayogo] is unsatisfactory.

Being unable to get what one wishes for [yam ' p ' icchaṃ na labhati] is unsatisfactory. In brief, grasping at things of the world on account of sensory stimuli [pañcupādānakkhandhā] is unsatisfactory.

This, O monks is the noble truth of the origin or genesis [samudaya] of the truth of unsatisfactoriness,namely this craving for [taṇhā] which leads to regeneration in Samsāra [ponobhavikā], associated with intense delight and attachment [nandī rāgasahagatā], delighting at every turn. This is the craving for sense delights, craving for Samsaric continuance and illogical wish for termination of Samsara [vibhava taṇhā] This, O monks, is the noble truth of cessation of unsatisfactoriness [dukkhanirodha]. namely the total cessation without any subdue of that craving [asesa-virāga-nirodho], abandonment [paṭinissago], release [mutti] and nonclinging [anālayo].

This, O monks, is the noble truth of the way leading to the total cessation of unsatisfactoriness [dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā]. It is this Noble Eightfold Path, namely corrected view [sammā diṭṭhi] corrected thought patterns [sammā saṅkappo], corrected ways of speech [sammā vacā], corrected bodily activity [sammā kammanto], corrected forms of livelihood [sammā ājīvo], corrected forms of endeavour [sammā vāyāmo], corrected mindfulness [sammā sati] and corrected concentration of mind [sammā samādhi].

O monks, I got this insight [cakkhuṃ udapādi],this awareness [ñāṇaṃ], this wisdom [paññā], this knowledge [vijjā] and this illumination [āloko] with regard to Life, the Noble Truth of Unsatisfactoriness of Life quite apart from or unheard of in the relevant teachings of the time [pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu].

–  –  –

Unsatisfactoriness should be apprehended by me [pariññeyyan ' ti]. Then it occurred to me that I had apprehended it [pariññātan ' ti]. This was the manifestation of light in my life. [cakkhu = ñāṇa = paññā = vijjā = āloko udapādi.] [This means self-acquired vision and wisdom with regard to the reality of life.

It is not an illumination that comes from outside.].

O monks, I got this insight [cakkhuṃ udapādi],this awareness [ñāṇaṃ], this wisdom [paññā], this knowledge [vijjā] and this illumination [āloko] with regard to of Life, the Noble Truth of the Cause of Unsatisfactoriness of Life quite apart from or unheard of in the relevant teachings of the time [pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu].

Then O monks, the thought occurred to me that this Truth of the Cause of Unsatisfactoriness should be abandoned by me [pahātabban ' ti]. Then it occurred to me that I had abandoned it [pahīnan ' ti]. This was the manifestation of light in my life. [cakkhu = ñāṇa = paññā = vijjā = āloko udapādi.]

–  –  –

O monks, I got this insight [cakkhuṃ udapādi],this awareness [ñāṇaṃ], this wisdom [paññā], this knowledge [vijjā] and this illumination [āloko] with regard to Unsatisfactoriness Life, the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Unsatisfactoriness of Life quite apart from or unheard of in the relevant teachings of the time [pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu].



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