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«Introduction The objective of this paper is to present in a succinct history of urban and nobility “compossessorate” records as well as their ...»

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Cornel ACHIM77


This paper presents a succinct levers, instruments, means, methods that worked

compossessorates in Transylvania. Based on detailed studies of specific legislation, archival

materials, statistical and literature, trying to provide a more complete picture of the mechanism by

which compossessorates as a form of property specifies contributed to socio-economic development. This mechanism of operation, although it relates to the economic history of Transylvania is topical, and the paper tries to offer some solutions for integrating the organizational forms in the current financial and economic mechanism in Romania.

Keywords: economic and financial mechanism, compossessorates, economic history JEL Classification: B15, B20, B21, B22, B26 Introduction The objective of this paper is to present in a succinct history of urban and nobility “compossessorate” records as well as their mode of operation, in the light of specific legislation times. In this paper using archival materials, statistics and information from the literature, in order to try to obtain a faithful image as the mechanism by which these forms of ownership have contributed to the socio-economic development of communities. This mechanism of operation, although it relates to the economic history of Transylvania is topical, and the paper attempts to provide some solutions for integrating the organizational forms in the current financial and economic mechanism in Romania.

Definition The name "compossessorat" was used before 1848, meaning an associative property, feudal rights over immovable and, jointly and severally, resulting from the division of common property, noble in the same state or their descendants legitimate - rights based on calculating the number and size of each sesia city limits. In a village there, so "noble compossessorat" when it comes to property and common use of the undivided property owners nobles (Istvan Kallay, 1983 "Noble Compossessorat" p 101, Communications archivist, No.54, Budapest).

An early form of this structure is found in sec. seventeenth century and the SEC. XVIII, organization and functioning, it generalizes across Transylvania and Hungary. The name "compossessorat" (compossessoratus) appears in the documents late sec. seventeenth century. Thus, in Bihor county, at a assessments on april 15, 1688, which included the names of serfs, their estates, their offspring (boys), their assets, liabilities, etc., in terms of death or possibility of milling (molendinum), we find that mill Terebes-Chiribiş is in the town of compossessorate - Compossessoribus common (Regestrata. UC 24: 44.1688, land records and assessments, Hungarian State Archives). In a similar document written on September 27, 1697 in the city of Seini, Satu Mare county, we learn oak forest-owners - Sylva Compossessoribus communis (Regestrata. UC 34: 22.1697, land records and assessments, Hungarian State Archives). From an inventory dated 1682 in Hungary, Szalok town, county Szepesi, it appears that the mill and its revenues are from the compossessorate (Compossessoribus molundinum). Also in the area Nemes Buk Borsod county property nobility compossessorate census in 1738, it found that pub and butchery is the compossessorate where fishing is common during floods.

Mayor councillor in City Hall of Moftin, PhD student at Oradea University, speciality history Assets and income nobility compossessorate

These can be classified as follows:

1. tangible goods that can be divided (divisible) - arable land, grassland.

2. real indivisible, intangible rights - that benefits royal prerogatives: pub and shop keeping, butchers, milling, the right to levy customs and pontoon bridge, the right to organize fairs, etc.

3. real and tangible rights to which their division but not common sharing of their benefits: forests, grasslands, fishing, hunting and if you give in use or rent, the money is divided among compossessors proportionally according to the size and each owned buildable number (Huszty Stephanus, 1758, Jurisprudence Practice, p 271-272, Eger).

The said before confirming a census of the Chioarului Valley nobility compossessorates, written in

1803. We need to know that the district Chioarului (Kowariensis), have a special status called "free Baroni" which meant that this territory not have jurisdiction "Ispanu" (Committees) or other county magistrates. Trials devolve nobility. Noblemen were mostly ethnic Romanian, who acquired the privileges of the ancient kings and princes in exchange for military service. Leading the district is "captain" who resided in the city Chioarului, whose commander was. It was the military and administrative jurisdiction including nobility. For example: "Opidum" Berchez right Innkeepers returned Reformed Church, through a donation older, and so on butcher's right. The city could hold four annual fairs whose benefits were all the church (Molnar Erzsebet Banki, 2007 compossessorates Chioarului noble valley. Conscription witnesses, p 29 Kecskemét, Monumenta museology.) As said by witnesses ask, given that members of the Reformed were Hungarians, Hungarian nobles here considered that the rights of the parish they are entitled to them (this and depending on the fee you paid in this church, during ).

For proporţionalizarea revenues, rights and obligations outside the city resulting from the use of the commons (forests, pastures, meadows, etc.) main standard used by nobles from owners, was "Sesia antiqua" ie buildings and land inside the village. The text shows that the 39 owners nobles, had a total of 27 cube "Sesia antiqua" (aprox.13 ha.intravilan) after which they are entitled 499 arable cube to which they annexed 219 Cube from deforestation. Benefit after meadows obtained by illegal logging amounts to 354 carts of hay. Vineyard of 39 compossessors income is 1,005 gallons of wine.

Another example is the Berchezoaia nobility compossessorate, with 66 nobles, of which 64 Romanian. Witnesses here complain about the smallness "sessile antiqua" due to their fragmentation over time. Were among them nobles compossessors who ruled for just 50th or 60th part of a sessile whole 17 nobles had no estates in the town, which is called "extraneus" ie, they built their homes on estates Out of town (field) occupied illegally. After the six "sessile antiqua" Cube 326 used for plowing and busier abusive tax area cube Royal 339 by deforestation.

"Appertinenţia" Urban sessile (ie the right thing after 'estates antiqua ") was 178 of hay, moreover have cleared and occupied an area of 160 carts. In the chapter "alive" we learn that only two nobles have owned an area that produces about 20 gallons of wine, as a result, in the "Innkeepers" say they have come to be traded, although entitled as noble, instead "also occasionally sells brandy, if the crop year allows" but not always for money but rather are consumed together. The village does not take anyone butchers and if an accident someone in the community is forced to sacrifice cow or an ox when it moves how popular self-help called "hops" through which every member of the community buys some meat thus easing somewhat damage the animal host. By this variant of group work helps community damaging and not least participants "Hops" feast and her animal flesh. Die there in this locality and nobles held their trials as in all the villages of the Valley Chioarului (Molnar Erzsebet Banki, 2007 nobility compossessorate Chioarului Valley, census with witnesses, p34. Kecskemét, Monumenta museology.) Next we will try to translate the statement of witnesses Preluca, troubled by the increasing number of noblemen: "we also have today more old, even we few older we mention that our village were not more than 10 or 16 houses and were surrounded by forests more. From the grace of God after 40years on our hill nobility multiplied so much that we already have more than 100 households.

God knows where we will fit over a year or two possibly not give us a plague-n. "The interesting part is that village, there were only four noble families: Nechita Florian, Prince and Giurgea. Each had one "Sesia antiqua" and we see demographic growth after the name of the noble owners, conscription: 21 named Nechita Florian were number 54, out of a total of 111 compossessors. This phenomenon of fragmentation of the old estates within city limits, is due largely to the fact that the daughters of noblemen in marriage with elements of social classes below, but, after marriage, were entitled to become nobles full (Molnar Banki Erzsebet, 2007 Nobility compossessorate Chioarului Valley, conscription witnesses, p 44. Kecskemét, Monumenta museology.).

Who could be compossessors?

If I were to give a definition I quote from the book "Jurisprudence practice" of Hustty Stefanus (Eger in 1758),, it is legitimate compossessor, who rules by inheritance, by inscribare, purchase or donation (Successio, Inscriptio, empţio, donatio) ". It is conceivable that the serfs, tenant farmers or contractualii (precarii) to be part of nobility compossessorate. Looking more closely at the composition of the compossessorates from Transylvania and the Hungarian kingdom conclude that their members are not exclusively nobles row (as claimed by some researchers) so that at the beginning of the nineteenth century, among nobility compossessorate of Abony (Hungary) we find the name of the great aristocratic families: Dessewfy, Festetics, Orcy, Revay, Radvansky, Hunyady etc. and Others The really are common among the nobility. Instead in Bihor county compossessorate goods from Simian they were owned by a single noble family called Kazinczy Ferenc Dienes, Juliana, Clara, Joszef and Miklos (Istvan Kallay, 1983 “Compossessorate noble”, p 105, Communications archivist, no. 54, Budapest).

Organizing and conducting of nobility compossessorates The main organ of the General Assembly leadership was that convenes twice a year, usually from St. George and St. Michael autumn (Compossessorate of Hu Abony.). There were some compossessorates, where the meeting is held once a year but then several days (Hanusfalva Compossessorate, Hungary) (Istvan Kallay, 1983 “Nobility Compossessorate”, 113 p., Communications archivist, No.54, Budapest). Meeting was chaired by the director or compossessor of noble rank highest and recorded minutes of the meeting that was signed by those present. Each compossessor presence was mandatory, invited members and widows who have since died. It can be seen that all was personally present nobility and high-ranking nobles sent their representatives (less family Dessewfy). As is clear from the documents before the meeting participants addressed each with the name "compossessors gentlemen". At these annual meetings and invited could participate, such as lawyers, domain administrators nobility, magistrates etc.

The agenda of the meetings was predetermined themes diversified yet focused around three major topics: 1. The report on the joint income and checking them; 2. Dividing “rates of income'' for compossessors; 3. Issues related to joint property.

Gleaned through documents of nobility compossessorates, find the agenda various topics: income building, and the boundaries and limits of land, problems the serfs pay engineers and certain cadastral works, establishment of fees for the use of certain properties, construction of canals, repair roads and bridges or their construction, lease rights royal (butchers, Innkeepers), determining the obligations of the management structure and execution (director, deputy director, secretary, treasurer and their helpers) Gypsy problem, decisions related to the exploitation of pastures, forests and more.

Next governing body, directly subordinate to the General Assembly, the gathering was small (congregaţio particularis) headed by the director, who meet monthly on the first Sunday of the

month. Compossessors presences was not mandatory. The agenda was very colorful here:

inventory building, construction, maintenance and repair of their (deposits, tenant house, inn and pub etc.), the royal tithe, unpaid taxes, organizing grazing, forest management, hiring officials for compossessorates areas, lending of money at interest and not least the enforcement of decisions of the general meeting (Istvan Kallay, 1983 “Nobility Compossessorate”, 113-114 p., in Communications archivist, no.54, Budapest).

Field of activity and operation law of the nobility compossessorates In reality, the area of activity and nobility compossessorates sphere of influence was much broader and more complex. A first important activity as the administration of the commons (royal benefits, reporting and revenue sharing, accounting, land surveying and archiving). A second activity was significant as government and public policy communities (village administration, taxes, maintenance of roads and bridges, guild issues, urban planning, civil protection, culture, health, public order and protection of orphans). The following activity which involved compossessorates jurisdiction or arbitration court was noble (or seat noble court cases magistratuale obligations related to land records, land consolidation, adjustment and separation of property, criminal cases and civil lawsuits). A final concern was specific compossessorate Church patronage and protection (construction and maintenance of buildings, church wealth management, payroll and ecclesial teaching in denominational schools etc).

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